Architecture of the femoral and tibial diaphyses in relation to body mass and composition: Research from whole-body CT scans of adult humans.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2018 12 24;167(4):813-826. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Laboratory of 3D Imaging and Analytical Methods, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Charles University, Praha 2, Czech Republic.

Objectives: Recent investigations have evaluated the influence of body composition on long bones in order to overcome the limits of body mass (BM) estimation methods and eventually lead to studying nutrition in past populations. Knowing how fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) impact the skeleton would also enhance the understanding of mobility, activity, and locomotion derived from bone architecture. We investigated the relationship between BM and composition, and the architecture of the entire tibial and femoral diaphyses in an adult sample representative of a wide range of variation in age, BM, and composition.

Materials And Methods: Body composition was measured directly from 78 whole-body CT scans for which the age, sex, BM, and stature were recorded. The entire diaphyseal thickness, volume, curvature, and cross-sectional geometry parameters of both the femur and tibia were numerically extracted.

Results: FM correlates with large portions of the femoral thickness in females only. FFM correlates with the femoral diaphysis in males but not in females. FFM correlates with the tibia architecture in both sexes, while FM is correlated in males exclusively.

Discussion: BM and body components influence the architecture of the diaphysis of lower limb long bones in sex-specific patterns that are mostly reflected in their thickness and can be recorded, in some cases, for their strength, rigidity, and volume. Our results suggest that (1) long bone diaphyses should be thoroughly studied, as a whole, when possible; and (2) BM and body components should be accounted for when deriving activity, mobility, or locomotion patterns from cortical bone.

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23713DOI Listing
December 2018
Save 15% Survey

Similar Publications

Impact of increasing levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on image quality in oil-based postmortem CT angiography in coronary arteries.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Dusseldorf, D-40225, Dusseldorf, Germany.

Introduction: Postmortem multi-detector computed tomography (PMCT) has become an important part in forensic imaging. Modern reconstruction techniques such as iterative reconstruction (IR) are frequently used in postmortem CT angiography (PMCTA). The image quality of PMCTA depends on the strength of IR. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Dual-phase 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT may increase the rate of detected lesions in prostate cancer patients.

Urologia 2021 Feb 24:391560321993544. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy, Bushehr Medical University Hospital, The Persian Gulf Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

Background: This study was conducted to compare the early static (3-6 min post-injection (p.i.)) and standard whole body (1 h, p. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

The impact of neurological disability and sensory loss on mindfulness practice.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 Feb 23:1-9. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

School of Sport Science and Physical Activity, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, UK.

Objectives: Mindfulness-based approaches are increasingly recommended in the management of medical conditions associated with sensory loss and absence, such as Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Functional Neurological Disorder (FND). Yet the implications of undertaking practices such as body scanning when living with sensory loss have not been considered. This study aimed to explore the impact of sensory loss on the practice and experience of mindfulness in qualified mindfulness teachers with SCI/FND/MS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Learning-Based Stopping Power Mapping on Dual-Energy CT for Proton Radiation Therapy.

Int J Part Ther 2021 12;7(3):46-60. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Purpose: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has been used to derive relative stopping power (RSP) maps by obtaining the energy dependence of photon interactions. The DECT-derived RSP maps could potentially be compromised by image noise levels and the severity of artifacts when using physics-based mapping techniques. This work presents a noise-robust learning-based method to predict RSP maps from DECT for proton radiation therapy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021