Cryptosporidiosis in an indigenous community in the Philippines.

Ryan V Labana, Julieta Z Dungca, Veeranoot Nissapatorn

Overview

For the first time, Boliwong, an indigenous community in the Philippines, was surveyed for the prevalence of Cryptosporidium from April to December 2017. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples from the river, creek, and water pumps via immunomagnetic separation techniques, and from human and animal concentrated faecal samples using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Seven of the 24 water samples (29.2%) were positive for Cryptosporidium, with the highest concentration (0.8 oocyst/L) detected in the creek. Of 35 fecal samples from different animal groups, 8 (21.6%) were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The highest intensity of oocyst shedding was detected in dogs (?2 =8.00). Of the 137 human fecal samples, 39 (28.5%) were infected with Cryptosporidium. In this study, 3 risk factors were found to be associated with infection: (1) location (crude odds ratio [cOR], 16.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 127.41; p=0.008), (2) drinking water from the natural spring (cOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.82; p<0.05), and (3) using an open pit as a sanitary toilet facility (cOR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.14 to 5.20; p<0.05). When the cOR was adjusted, using an open pit as a sanitary toilet facility remained a significant risk factor of infection (adjusted OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.90; p<0.05). There is a potentially emerging Cryptosporidium zoonosis in Boliwong, Lagawe, Philippines. It is recommended that the toilet facilities and the water system in the community be rehabilitated to avoid any possible disease outbreak. Health education is also needed in the community to maintain proper hygiene and sanitation practices.

Summary

This study further aimed to identify risk factors of Cryptosporidium infection and to estimate the points of oocyst transmission to help policy-makers formulate sensitive and effective community health programs.

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Author Comments

Ryan V Labana, MSc.
Ryan V Labana, MSc.
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Faculty
Manila | Philippines
The needs of the indigenous people should be given enough attention by the authorities.Ryan V Labana, MSc.

Resources

Community-based surveillance of Cryptosporidium in the indigenous community of Boliwong, Philippines: from April to December 2017.

Authors:
Ryan V Labana, MSc.
Ryan V Labana, MSc.
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Faculty
Manila | Philippines

Epidemiol Health 2018 28;40:e2018047. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

School of Allied Health Sciences (Southeast Asia Water Team), Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand.

Objectives: For the first time, Boliwong, an indigenous community in the Philippines, was surveyed for the prevalence of Cryptosporidium from April to December 2017.

Methods: Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples from the river, creek, and water pumps via immunomagnetic separation techniques, and from human and animal concentrated faecal samples using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique.

Results: Seven of the 24 water samples (29.2%) were positive for Cryptosporidium, with the highest concentration (0.8 oocyst/L) detected in the creek. Of 35 fecal samples from different animal groups, 8 (21.6%) were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The highest intensity of oocyst shedding was detected in dogs (χ2 =8.00). Of the 137 human fecal samples, 39 (28.5%) were infected with Cryptosporidium. In this study, 3 risk factors were found to be associated with infection: (1) location (crude odds ratio [cOR], 16.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 127.41; p=0.008), (2) drinking water from the natural spring (cOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.82; p<0.05), and (3) using an open pit as a sanitary toilet facility (cOR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.14 to 5.20; p<0.05). When the cOR was adjusted, using an open pit as a sanitary toilet facility remained a significant risk factor of infection (adjusted OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.90; p<0.05).

Conclusions: There is a potentially emerging Cryptosporidium zoonosis in Boliwong, Lagawe, Philippines. It is recommended that the toilet facilities and the water system in the community be rehabilitated to avoid any possible disease outbreak. Health education is also needed in the community to maintain proper hygiene and sanitation practices.

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Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302226PMC
December 2018
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References

(Supplied by CrossRef)

Putignani et al.
2010

Jones et al.
2015

2017

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