J Magn Reson Imaging 2019 Jul 16;50(1):288-296. Epub 2018 Oct 16.
Department of Radiology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, P.R. China.
Background: Renal fibrosis is a common consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is the mechanism by which various forms of CKD progress to endstage renal failure. Accurate assessment of renal fibrosis is important for treatment.
Purpose: To measure longitudinal changes of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) before and after reversible unilateral ureteral obstruction in an animal model.
Study Type: Self-controlled animal study.
Animal Model: Surgical obstruction of the ureters was performed and then removed after 5 days. Rats were scanned on Days 0, 1, 3, and 5 after creating the obstruction and on Days 4, 7, and 12 after releasing the obstruction.
Field Strength/sequence: 3.0T/IVIM/ASL.
Assessment: The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pure molecular diffusion (D), perfusion fraction (f), pseudodiffusion (D*), and renal blood flow (RBF) obtained from the ASL were measured.
Statistical Tests: Using SPSS v. 20.0 software, P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The data from each timepoint were compared using one-way analysis of variance and correlation analysis was applied to various parameters.
Results: The postobstruction kidneys showed renal tubule swelling and increased collagen fiber content. Renal tubule swelling was relieved after reversing the obstruction, but Masson staining and cell density analysis revealed progressive changes that were primarily localized to the medulla. In general, ADC, D, f, D*, and RBF decreased with time during the 5 days of obstruction, and increased after release of the obstruction. ADC positively correlated with D, f, D*, and RBF (r = 0.415, r = 0.634, r = 0.465 r = 0.586, P < 0.001, respectively) in the cortex in this study. Also, ADC showed a positive correlation with D, f, and D* (r = 0.724, r = 0.749, r = 0.151, P < 0.001, respectively) in the medulla.
Data Conclusion: Kidney perfusion was the major factor affecting ADC. Functional imaging may be useful for following progression of CKD.
Level Of Evidence: 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;50:288-296.