ANZ J Surg 2019 03 10;89(3):E56-E60. Epub 2018 Oct 10.
Department of Colorectal Surgery, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.
Background: Although most diverticular bleeding resolve spontaneously, up to 30% can bleed torrentially, necessitating angioembolization, endoscopic or surgical intervention. Non-contact endoscopic therapies, such as topical haemostatic powders, do not require precise targeting and are attractive because identification of specific culprit diverticulum is difficult. While their use in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is well established, its role in lower gastrointestinal bleeding remains unclear. We used topical Hemospray in a novel setting of severe diverticular bleeding, evaluating its efficacy in achieving haemostasis, reducing re-bleeding and the need for re-intervention.
Methods: Consecutive patients from a tertiary colorectal unit who underwent colonoscopy and Hemospray for severe diverticular bleeding from November 2016 to October 2017 were included. Hemospray was endoscopically applied to colonic segments with major stigmata of recent haemorrhage.
Results: Ten patients had a median time to colonoscopy of 22 h (range: 8-54) from admission. Median of 3.5 units (range: 0-10) of packed cells were transfused pre-endoscopy. All achieved immediate haemostasis without further haemodynamic instability or re-bleeding. No endoscopic, radiological or surgical re-intervention was required. Patients were fit for discharge within a median of 3 days (range: 2-7) following Hemospray. There were no morbidities, mortalities or readmissions for diverticular bleeding after a median follow-up of 9.5 months (range: 3-16).
Conclusion: This feasibility study shows that topical haemostatic powders can offer a safe and effective therapeutic endoscopic option in severe diverticular bleeding with high haemostatic rate. Prospective controlled trials are required to establish its efficacy compared to conventional therapy.