We describe a 5-month-old female who presented with clinical features of 5p deletion syndrome, including high-pitched cry, microcephaly, micrognathia, bilateral preauricular tags, bifid uvula, abnormal palmar creases, bilateral hypoplastic nipples, feeding difficulties, and developmental delay. In addition, the patient also had a cardiac defect, proximal esophageal atresia, and distal tracheoesophageal fistula. aCGH of the patient revealed a 22.9-Mb deletion of chromosome 5p15.33p14.3 and an 8.28-Mb duplication of chromosome 5q12.1q13.2. Parental chromosome analysis indicated that these alterations are de novo. Chromosome and FISH analysis demonstrated that the 5q12.1q13.2 duplicated segment was attached to the 5p14.3 region with the band 5q12.1 more distal to the centromere than the band 5q13.2. Based on the bioinformatic analysis, we postulate a mechanism for the formation of this complex rearrangement of chromosome 5 by 2-step-wise events mediate by nonallelic homologous recombination between low copy repeats. To the best of our knowledge this rearrangement found in our patient has not been reported in the literature. This report demonstrates the value of chromosome analysis in conjunction with FISH and aCGH for identification of complex rearrangements which cannot be revealed by array analysis alone.