Genomic and environmental risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases in Africa: methods used for Phase 1 of the AWI-Gen population cross-sectional study.

Glob Health Action 2018 ;11(sup2):1507133

a Sydney Brenner Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Faculty of Health Sciences , University of the Witwatersrand , Johannesburg, South Africa.

There is an alarming tide of cardiovascular and metabolic disease (CMD) sweeping across Africa. This may be a result of an increasingly urbanized lifestyle characterized by the growing consumption of processed and calorie-dense food, combined with physical inactivity and more sedentary behaviour. While the link between lifestyle and public health has been extensively studied in Caucasian and African American populations, few studies have been conducted in Africa. This paper describes the detailed methods for Phase 1 of the AWI-Gen study that were used to capture phenotype data and assess the associated risk factors and end points for CMD in persons over the age of 40 years in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We developed a population-based cross-sectional study of disease burden and phenotype in Africans, across six centres in SSA. These centres are in West Africa (Nanoro, Burkina Faso, and Navrongo, Ghana), in East Africa (Nairobi, Kenya) and in South Africa (Agincourt, Dikgale and Soweto). A total of 10,702 individuals between the ages of 40 and 60 years were recruited into the study across the six centres, plus an additional 1021 participants over the age of 60 years from the Agincourt centre. We collected socio-demographic, anthropometric, medical history, diet, physical activity, fat distribution and alcohol/tobacco consumption data from participants. Blood samples were collected for disease-related biomarker assays, and genomic DNA extraction for genome-wide association studies. Urine samples were collected to assess kidney function. The study provides base-line data for the development of a series of cohorts with a second wave of data collection in Phase 2 of the study. These data will provide valuable insights into the genetic and environmental influences on CMD on the African continent.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2018.1507133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6161608PMC
June 2019
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