Nutr Health 2019 Mar 19;25(1):9-19. Epub 2018 Sep 19.
2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA.
Background:: Chronic inflammation is associated with numerous chronic diseases and can be managed with diet.
Aim:: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in baseline characteristics and plasma inflammation levels between two groups of participants that participated in an intensive, lifestyle intervention or a remotely delivered intervention. This work also assessed the association between Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores and participants' inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers at baseline.
Method:: Ninety-five participants (61 intervention, 34 control) chose to enroll in either a 12-month intervention consisting of a face-to-face nutrition, physical activity, and stress management intervention or a remotely-delivered intervention (control group) focusing on general cancer prevention. The intervention group met at the University of South Carolina for classes and the control group had materials emailed to them. A quantile regression was used to compare participants' high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the association between DII scores and biomarkers.
Results:: There were significant differences in age, body mass index, body fat percentage, and blood pressure between groups, but there were no differences in levels of inflammatory biomarkers. Values of interleukin-6 at the 90th percentile of its distribution were 8.31 pg/ml higher among those in DII quartile 4 compared with quartile 1 ( p = 0.02). All other outcomes were not significant.
Conclusion:: Given similar levels of inflammatory biomarkers, participants opting for the control group would also have benefited from a more intensive lifestyle intervention focusing on reducing inflammation.