J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018 Oct;31(10):1165-1168
Ghent University, Department of Pediatrics and Medical Genetics, Ghent, Belgium.
Background The association of hyperthyroidism with renal disease is very rare and the importance of timely clinical recognition cannot be overemphasized. Case presentation An 11-year-old girl presented with gastrointestinal symptoms while hypertension, edema and abdominal pain were noticed on clinical examination. Laboratory investigation revealed: hemoglobin 9.4 (11.5-15.5) g/dL, total white cell count 16 (4.5-12)×109/L, platelets 247 (150-450)×109/L, C-reactive protein (CRP) 31.8 (<5) mg/L, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 126 (13-43) mg/dL, creatinine 0.98 (0.53-0.79) mg/dL, albumin 25 (35-52) g/dL, complement factor C3 0.7 (0.9-1.8) g/L, complement factor C4 0.1 (0.1-0.4) g/L, tri-iodothyronine 6.5 (2.5-5.2) pg/mL, free thyroxine 2.4 (1-1.7) ng/dL, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) <0.02 (0.5-4.3) mU/L. Urinalysis showed nephrotic range proteinuria. Renal function deteriorated necessitating hemodialysis (HD). A renal biopsy revealed an immune complex-mediated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). Elevated thyroid hormones and suppressed TSH levels with elevated thyroperoxidase antibodies and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins confirmed the diagnosis of Graves' disease. Corticosteroids were commenced and eventually thiamazole was added with gradual improvement of renal function, cessation of HD and discharge from the hospital. Conclusions Graves' disease complicated by MPGN is extremely rare, but can cause life-threatening complications.