Epidemiol Serv Saude 2018 08 16;27(spe):e0500001. Epub 2018 Aug 16.
Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.
Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal disease associated with agricultural activities. Its incidence and prevalence are underestimated because of the lack of reporting in several Brazilian states. If paracoccidiodomycosis is not diagnosed and treated early and adequately, endemic fungal infection may result in serious sequelae. In addition to the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis) complex, the appearance of a new species, Paracoccidioides lutzii (P. lutzii), in Rondônia state, where the disease has reached epidemic levels, and in the country's Midwest region and Pará state, are challenges to diagnosis and to the urgent availability of antigens that are reactive with patients' sera. These guidelines aim to update the first Brazilian consensus on paracoccidioidomycosis by providing evidence-based recommendations for bedside patient management. The guidelines provide data on etiology, epidemiology, immunopathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and sequelae, with emphasis on diagnosis and treatment, as well as current recommendations and challenges in this field of knowledge.