PeerJ 2018 10;6:e5382. Epub 2018 Aug 10.
Departamento de Microbiología Molecular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Biotecnología, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
The shrimp or prawn is the most valuable traded marine product in the world market today and its microbiota plays an essential role in its development, physiology, and health. The technological advances and dropping costs of high-throughput sequencing have increased the number of studies characterizing the shrimp microbiota. However, the application of different experimental and bioinformatics protocols makes it difficult to compare different studies to reach general conclusions about shrimp microbiota. To meet this necessity, we report the first meta-analysis of the microbiota from freshwater and marine shrimps using all publically available sequences of the 16S ribosomal gene (16S rRNA gene). We obtained data for 199 samples, in which 63.3% were from marine (, and ), and 36.7% were from freshwater () shrimps. Technical variations among studies, such as selected primers, hypervariable region, and sequencing platform showed a significant impact on the microbiota structure. Additionally, the ANOSIM and PERMANOVA analyses revealed that the most important biological factor in structuring the shrimp microbiota was the marine and freshwater environment (ANOSIM = 0.54, = 0.001; PERMANOVA pseudo- = 21.8, = 0.001), where freshwater showed higher bacterial diversity than marine shrimps. Then, for marine shrimps, the most relevant biological factors impacting the microbiota composition were lifestyle (ANOSIM = 0.341, = 0.001; PERMANOVA pseudo- = 8.50, = 0.0001), organ (ANOSIM = 0.279, = 0.001; PERMANOVA pseudo- = 6.68, = 0.001) and developmental stage (ANOSIM = 0.240, = 0.001; PERMANOVA pseudo- = 5.05, = 0.001). According to the lifestyle, organ, developmental stage, diet, and health status, the highest diversity were for wild-type, intestine, adult, wild-type diet, and healthy samples, respectively. Additionally, we used PICRUSt to predict the potential functions of the microbiota, and we found that the organ had more differentially enriched functions (93), followed by developmental stage (12) and lifestyle (9). Our analysis demonstrated that despite the impact of technical and bioinformatics factors, the biological factors were also statistically significant in shaping the microbiota. These results show that cross-study comparisons are a valuable resource for the improvement of the shrimp microbiota and microbiome fields. Thus, it is important that future studies make public their sequencing data, allowing other researchers to reach more powerful conclusions about the microbiota in this non-model organism. To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis that aims to define the shrimp microbiota.