PLoS One 2018 10;13(8):e0201860. Epub 2018 Aug 10.
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States of America.
Background: No large studies have examined the prevalence of enuresis, its various forms and risk factors in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in Sub-Saharan Africa using standardised definitions. We determined age and gender-specific prevalence of enuresis and compared the nature of enuresis in children with and without SCA. We also identified predictors of enuresis in children with SCA.
Methods: Caregivers of children with SCA attending a tertiary centre haematology clinic in Nigeria were interviewed using a questionnaire. In addition, a separate questionnaire was completed for every sibling aged 5-17 years whose haemoglobin genotype was known. Enuresis and its various forms were defined using the definitions of the International Children's Continence Society.
Results: The study involved 243 children with SCA and 243 controls matched for age and sex. The mean age of the study cohort was 9.9 (3.4). Females made up 45.7% of the cohorts. The prevalence of enuresis was 49.4% and 29.6% in children with and without SCA, respectively (p = 0.009). In both groups, the prevalence of enuresis declined with age but remained five times higher at 25% in children with SCA aged 14-17 years compared with controls. Also, children with SCA and enuresis were older, more likely to have non-monosymptomatic enuresis and wet at least three nights per week than controls. Independent predictors of enuresis in children with SCA were a family history of enuresis and young age.
Conclusion: Children with SCA had more frequent and more severe enuresis which persisted to late adolescence than age and sex-matched controls. These features indicate a subset of enuresis that is difficult to treat in the general population. Young age and enuresis in a family member define a subset of children with SCA more likely to have enuresis. Healthcare workers need to discuss enuresis with parents of children with SCA and offer referral to continence services.