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A sequence analysis showed that a PEDV strain, similar to the OH851 S-INDEL strain isolated in the USA in January 2014, was responsible for the outbreaks in Italy in 2015 and 2016. However, from January 2017, a recombinant variant strain, containing a portion of the Swine Enteric Coronavirus in the S1 gene, spread and almost completely outcompeted the previous nonrecombinant strain. In total, 14.1% of the environmental swabs collected from trucks at slaughterhouses after animals were unloaded tested positive for PEDV before the trucks were cleaned and disinfected, and 46% remained positive after cleaning and disinfection processes were performed. Moreover, environmental swabs indicated that 17.3% of the empty trucks arriving at the farms to load animals were PEDV-positive. This study indicates that trucks can have an important role in the spread of PEDV in Italy. 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[Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => 142 ) [ELocationID] => 10.1186/s12917-015-0454-1 [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => Array ( [0] => Over the last years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused devastating enteric diseases in the US and several countries in Asia, while outbreaks in Europe have only been reported sporadically since the 1980s. At present, only insufficient information is available on currently circulating PEDV strains in Europe and their impact on the European swine industry. In this case report, we present epidemic outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea in three farms in South-Western Germany. [1] => Epidemic outbreaks of diarrhea affecting pigs of all age groups were reported in three farms, one fattening farm and two piglet producing farms, in South-Western Germany between May and November 2014. In the fattening farm yellowish, watery diarrhea without evidence of mucus or blood was associated with a massive reduction of feed consumption. Severity of clinical signs and mortality in young suckling pigs varied significantly between the two affected sow farms. While mortality in suckling piglets reached almost 70 % in one sow herd, no increase in suckling piglet mortality was observed in the second sow farm. In all three cases, PEDV was confirmed in feces and small intestines by RT-qPCR. Phylogenetic analyses based on full-length PEDV genomes revealed high identity among strains from all three herds. Moreover, the German strains showed very high nucleotide identity (99.4 %) with a variant of PEDV (OH851) that was isolated in the United States in January 2014. This strain with insertions and deletions in the S-gene (so called INDEL strains) was reported to show lower virulence. Slightly lower identities were found with other strains from the US and Asia. [2] => Phylogenetic information on the distribution of PEDV strains in Europe is severely lacking. In this case report we demonstrate that acute outbreaks of PEDV occurred in southern Germany in 2014. Current strains were clearly different from isolates found in the 1980s and were closely related to a PEDV variant found in the US in 2014. 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[Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => 1720-1732 ) [ELocationID] => 10.1111/tbed.12945 [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => From the severe porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) epidemics that struck in 2013 in the United States of America and other countries of North and South America, two types of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) were isolated, namely the InDel and the non-InDel strains. They are differentiated by insertions/deletions in the S1 nucleotide sequence of the S gene, and differences in virulence were observed from the clinical cases. In 2014, a PED outbreak occurred in a pig farm in France, from which an InDel strain was isolated. This study aimed at comparing, under experimental conditions, the pathogenicity and the direct and indirect transmissions between a non-InDel strain isolated from a PED-affected piglet in 2014 in the USA and the French InDel strain. All infected pigs showed clinical signs with the non-InDel strain although only the inoculated and direct contact pigs showed clinical signs in the InDel strain group. Although viral RNA was detected in air samples with both strains, the indirect contact pigs remained free from infection with the InDel strain in contrast to the non-InDel group in which airborne transmission occurred in the indirect contact pigs. All infected pigs shed virus in faeces regardless of PEDV strain with 9 of 30 pigs showing intermittent faecal shedding. The transmission rate by direct contact was found to be 2.17-fold higher than the non-InDel strain compared with the InDel. In conclusion, the InDel strain was less pathogenic than the non-InDel strain in our experimental conditions. The transmission route differed between the two strains. Direct contact was the main transmission route for the InDel strain, although the non-InDel strain was transmitted through direct contact and indirectly through the air. 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[Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => 73-79 ) [ELocationID] => 10.1002/vms3.88 [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => Here we report and characterize a porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) outbreak which occurred in a swine fattening farm in the province of Teramo, Abruzzi region (central Italy), in January 2016. PED virus (PEDV) identification was determined by real-time RT-PCR performed on RNAs purified from fecal samples collected from two symptomatic pigs. Whole genome sequence (PEDV 1842/2016) was also obtained by next generation sequencing straight from RNA purified from one fecal sample. Genome comparison with extant global PEDV strains revealed a high nucleotide identity with recently reported European and American S-INDEL PEDVs. Efficient sequencing, share of genomic data combined with the implementation of epidemiological tools would be the ideal approach for study and analysis of transboundary infectious diseases as PED. 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Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea Virus in Italy: Disease spread and the role of transportation.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 9;65(6):1935-1942. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna, Brescia, Italy.

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea Virus (PEDV) causes watery diarrhoea, dehydration, and a high mortality rate among suckling pigs. Recently, PEDV had a large negative economic impact on the swine industries in Asia and North America. In 2014, PEDV re-emerged in many European countries, but most countries only reported a few sporadic cases. Here, we report the epidemic wave that occurred in Italy from 2015 to 2017. During this time, PEDV was detected by real-time PCR in 438 farms located mainly in the high-density pig production area in Northern Italy. Most of the outbreaks were in farrow-to-finish, farrow-to-wean and finisher farms. Clinical signs were observed mainly in suckling and fattening animals, while mortality rates were higher in piglets, reaching 50%. A sequence analysis showed that a PEDV strain, similar to the OH851 S-INDEL strain isolated in the USA in January 2014, was responsible for the outbreaks in Italy in 2015 and 2016. However, from January 2017, a recombinant variant strain, containing a portion of the Swine Enteric Coronavirus in the S1 gene, spread and almost completely outcompeted the previous nonrecombinant strain. In total, 14.1% of the environmental swabs collected from trucks at slaughterhouses after animals were unloaded tested positive for PEDV before the trucks were cleaned and disinfected, and 46% remained positive after cleaning and disinfection processes were performed. Moreover, environmental swabs indicated that 17.3% of the empty trucks arriving at the farms to load animals were PEDV-positive. This study indicates that trucks can have an important role in the spread of PEDV in Italy.

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/tbed.12974
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December 2018

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