A biodegradable synthetic graft for small arteries matches the performance of autologous vein in rat carotid arteries.

Biomaterials 2018 10 26;181:67-80. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. Electronic address:

Autologous veins are the most widely used grafts for bypassing small arteries in coronary and peripheral arterial occlusive diseases. However, they have limited availability and cause donor-site morbidity. Here, we report a direct comparison of acellular biodegradable synthetic grafts and autologous veins as interposition grafts of rat carotid arteries, which is a good model for clinically relevant small arteries. Notably, extensive but transient infiltration of circulating monocytes at day 14 in synthetic grafts leads to a quickly-resolved inflammation and arterial-like tissue remodeling. The vein graft exhibits a similar inflammation phase except the prolonged presence of inflammatory monocytes. The walls of the remodeled synthetic graft contain many circumferentially aligned contractile non-proliferative smooth muscle cells (SMCs), collagen and elastin. In contrast, the walls of the vein grafts contain disorganized proliferating SMCs and thicken over time, suggesting the onset of stenosis. At 3 months, both grafts have a similar patency, extracellular matrix composition, and mechanical properties. Furthermore, synthetic grafts exhibit recruitment and re-orientation of newly synthesized collagen fibers upon mechanical loading. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a biodegradable synthetic vascular graft with a performance similar to an autologous vein in small artery grafting.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.07.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6743079PMC
October 2018
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