J Virol 2018 10 12;92(19). Epub 2018 Sep 12.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Programs in Global Oncology and Virology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center and Center for AIDS Research, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) induces B cell hyperplasia and neoplasia, such as multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). To explore KSHV-induced B cell reprogramming , we expressed the KSHV latency locus, inclusive of all viral microRNAs (miRNAs), in B cells of transgenic mice in the absence of the inhibitory FcγRIIB receptor. The BALB/c strain was chosen as this is the preferred model to study B cell differentiation. The mice developed hyperglobulinemia, plasmacytosis, and B lymphoid hyperplasia. This phenotype was ameliorated by everolimus, which is a rapamycin derivative used for the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma. KSHV latency mice exhibited hyperresponsiveness to the T-dependent (TD) antigen mimic anti-CD40 and increased incidence of pristane-induced inflammation. Lastly, the adaptive immunity against a secondary infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) was markedly enhanced. These phenotypes are consistent with KSHV lowering the activation threshold of latently infected B cells, which may be beneficial in areas of endemicity, where KSHV is acquired in childhood and infections are common. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes latency in B cells and is stringently linked to primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and the premalignant B cell hyperplasia multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). To investigate potential genetic background effects, we expressed the KSHV miRNAs in BALB/c transgenic mice. BALB/c mice are the preferred strain for B cell hybridoma development because of their propensity to develop predictable B cell responses to antigen. The BALB/c latency mice exhibited a higher incidence of B cell hyperplasia as well as sustained hyperglobulinemia. The development of neutralizing antibodies against ZIKV was augmented in BALB/c latency mice. Hyperglobulinemia was dampened by everolimus, a derivative of rapamycin, suggesting a role for mTOR inhibitors in managing immune activation, which is hallmark of KSHV infection as well as HIV infection.