Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 11 6;24(11):2239-2244. Epub 2018 Jul 6.
Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Seoul National University Cancer Research Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) was performed previously in adults using a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen and bone marrow as a graft source. In an effort to reduce relapse rates, myeloablative conditioning regimens with higher intensities are now used. We used an intensive daily pharmacokinetic monitoring method for busulfan dosing in children for effective myeloablation and to reduce toxicity. Here, we report the retrospective results of 34 patients (median age 11.1 years) who underwent haplo-HSCT with PTCy using a targeted busulfan-based myeloablative conditioning regimen and peripheral blood as a stem cell source. The donor-type neutrophil engraftment rate was 97.1%, and the cumulative incidence rates of grade II to IV and grade III to IV acute and extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease were 38.2%, 5.9%, and 9.1%, respectively. The overall survival and event-free survival rates, and treatment-related mortality were 85.0%, 79.4%, and 2.9%, respectively. Based on the subgroup analysis of patients with malignancies (n = 23), the relapse incidence rate was 21.7%. Haplo-HSCT using PTCy with targeted busulfan-based myeloablative conditioning and peripheral blood as a stem cell source was a safe and promising therapeutic option for children.