BJU Int 2018 10 6;122(4):688-694. Epub 2018 Jun 6.
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of combination therapy with clomiphene citrate (CC) and anastrozole (AZ) for male hypoandrogenism.
Patients And Methods: We identified patients treated with a combination of CC + AZ in the period 2014 to 2017. Data were gathered on patient characteristics and laboratory values at baseline. Total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone, oestradiol and testosterone:oestradiol ratio were measured before combination therapy (treatment with CC only) and at CC + AZ combination therapy follow-ups. Treatment side effects were recorded; prostatic-specific antigen and haematocrit levels were measured to assess safety after 6 months. As a secondary outcome, semen characteristics were compared at baseline and after at least 3 months of combination therapy when these data were available. Data were analysed using a paired t-test and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test.
Results: A total of 51 men were included, with a mean age of 35.4 ± 7.4 years and a mean body mass index of 35.0 ± 8.0 kg/m . After CC treatment, total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone, and oestradiol levels all significantly increased. AZ was added in all patients with hyperoestrogenaemia (oestradiol >50 pg/mL) or a testosterone:oestradiol ratio <10. CC + AZ therapy maintained therapeutic total testosterone and bioavailable testosterone levels while also normalizing oestradiol levels and testosterone:oestradiol ratio. Eleven patients experienced side effects: anxiety/irritability, n = 5; decreased libido, n = 4; elevated (>54%) haematocrit, n = 2.
Conclusion: Combination therapy with CC + AZ is an effective and safe alternative for patients with elevated oestradiol level or low testosterone:oestradiol ratio.