Asian Biomed (Res Rev News) 2017 Apr;11(2):145-159
Department of Health, Thailand Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand.
Background: Thailand has made progress in reducing perinatal HIV transmission rates to levels that meet the World Health Organization targets for so-called "elimination" (<2%) of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT).
Objectives: To highlight the Thailand National Guidelines on HIV/AIDS Treatment Prevention Working Group issued a new version of its National Prevention of MTCT guidelines in March 2017 aimed to reduce MTCT rate to <1% by 2020.
Discussion Of Guidelines: The guidelines include recommending initiation of antepartum antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus lamivudine (3TC)/emtricitabine (FTC) plus efavirenz regardless of CD4 cell count as soon as HIV is diagnosed for ART naïve HIV-infected pregnant women. An alternative regimen is TDF or zidovudine (AZT) plus 3TC/FTC plus lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) for HIV-infected pregnant women suspected resistant to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Treatment should be started immediately irrespective of gestational age and continued after delivery for life. Raltegravir is recommended in addition to the ART regimen for HIV-infected pregnant women who present late (gestational age (GA) ≥32 weeks) or those who have a viral load (VL) >1000 copies/mL at GA ≥32 weeks. HIV-infected pregnant women who conceive while receiving ART should continue their treatment regimen during pregnancy. HIV-infected pregnant women who present in labor and are not receiving ART should receive single-dose nevirapine immediately along with oral AZT, and continue ART for life. Infants born to HIV-infected mothers are categorized as high or standard risk for MTCT. High MTCT risk is defined as an infant whose mother has a viral load (VL) > 50 copies/mL at GA > 36 weeks or has received ART <12 weeks before delivery, or has poor ART adherence. These infants should be started on AZT plus 3TC plus NVP for 6 weeks after delivery. Infants with standard MTCT risk should receive AZT for 4 weeks. Formula feeding exclusively is recommended for all HIV-exposed infants.