Biomed Res Int 2018 19;2018:3742362. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
Department of Pediatric Cardiac and Congenital Heart Disease Surgery, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, Mexico.
Background: Delayed sternal closure (DSC) after cardiac surgery is a therapeutic option in the treatment of the severely impaired heart in pediatric cardiac surgery.
Methods: A single-center retrospective review of all bypass surgeries performed over a 10-year period (2003-2012).
Results: Of a total of 2325 patients registered in our database, the DSC group included 259 cases (11%), and the remaining 2066 cases (89%) constituted the control group (PSC). RACHS-1 risk was higher for the DSC group (74% had a score of 3 or 4) than for the PSC group (82% had a score of 2 or 3). The most frequent diagnosis for the DSC group was transposition of the great arteries (28%). We found out that hemodynamic instability was the main indication observed in patients aged ≤ 8 years (63%), while bleeding was the principal indication for patients aged ≥ 8 years (94%) ( ≤ 0.001). The average time between surgery and sternal closure was 2.3 ± 1.4 days. Overall mortality rates were higher for patients of the DSC group (22%) than for the PSC group (8.7%) (OR: 0.4 (95% CI: 0.4 to 0.5), < 0.05). There were six patients with DSC who developed mediastinitis (2.3%). The risk of mediastinitis was significantly higher when DSC was performed 4 days after the primary surgery.
Conclusions: DSC is an important management strategy for congenital cardiac surgery in infants and children. The prolonged sternal closure time is associated with an increased rate of postoperative mediastinitis.