Urol Oncol 2018 Aug 21;36(8):362.e1-362.e7. Epub 2018 May 21.
Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC.
Objective: To assess the associations between perioperative allogeneic blood transfusions (ABTs) and recurrence, overall and renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-specific survival in patients undergoing surgical treatment for clinically localized disease.
Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 1,056 consecutive patients undergoing surgical treatment (radical or partial nephrectomy) for clinically localized RCC between 2000 to 2010. Demographic (age, race, and sex) clinical (preoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit, type of surgery [partial or radical nephrectomy]), and pathological (T and N stages, RCC histotype, grade) data were compared between patients receiving perioperative (intraoperative or postoperative) blood transfusions and those who are not. Distant and local recurrence-free survival, overall survival, RCC-specific survival were recorded and Kaplan-Meier survival curves as well as multivariable proportional regression models adjusted for clinical and pathological characteristics were produced.
Results: On multivariable analyses adjusted for clinical and pathological characteristics, the receipt of ABTs was associated with lower recurrence-free (HR = 1.86, P = 0.002), overall (HR = 1.83, P = 0.016), and RCC-specific survival (HR = 2.12, P = 0.031). The negative effect of ABTs was apparent for distant (HR = 2.24, P<0.001) but not local recurrences (HR = 0.78, P = 0.643). Limitations include retrospective nature and lack of uniform criteria for blood transfusion during the study period.
Conclusions: In this study, perioperative ABTs were independently associated with worse oncological outcomes in patients with clinically localized RCC. Receipt of ABT was associated with roughly a 2-fold increase in the hazard of metastatic progression, all-cause and RCC-specific mortality. Further research is needed on the mechanisms of transfusion-induced immunomodulation, alternative transfusion protocols and methods for autologous blood transfusion and recovery.