Methods Enzymol 2018 2;604:367-388. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Pharmacy, and Center for Biomolecular Sciences, Chicago, IL, United States. Electronic address:
S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) is universal in biology, serving as the second most common cofactor in a variety of enzymatic reactions. One of the main roles of SAM is the methylation of nucleic acids, proteins, and metabolites. Methylation often imparts regulatory control to DNA and proteins, and leads to an increase in the activity of specialized metabolites such as those developed as pharmaceuticals. There has been increased interest in using SAM analogs in methyltransferase-catalyzed modification of biomolecules. However, SAM and its analogs are expensive and unstable, degrading rapidly under physiological conditions. Thus, the availability of methods to prepare SAM in situ is desirable. In addition, synthetic methods to generate SAM analogs suffer from low yields and poor diastereoselectivity. The chlorinase SalL from the marine bacterium Salinispora tropica catalyzes the reversible, nucleophilic attack of chloride at the C5' ribosyl carbon of SAM leading to the formation of 5'-chloro-5'-deoxyadenosine (ClDA) with concomitant displacement of l-methionine. It has been demonstrated that the in vitro equilibrium of the SalL-catalyzed reaction favors the synthesis of SAM. In this chapter, we describe methods for the preparation of SalL, and the chemoenzymatic synthesis of SAM and SAM analogs from ClDA and l-methionine congeners using SalL. In addition, we describe procedures for the in situ chemoenzymatic synthesis of SAM coupled to DNA, peptide, and metabolite methylation, and to the incorporation of isotopes into alkylated products.