Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Feb 1;44(2):55-61. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
Département de microbiologie, infectiologie et immunologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC.
Background: Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by genotypes L, L and L. This LGV is associated with significant morbidity and increased risk of HIV transmission. While fewer than two cases per year were reported in Quebec before 2005, LGV emerged in 2005-2006 with 69 cases, followed by a period of low incidence (2007-2012), and subsequent re-emergence since 2013.
Objectives: To describe the incidence of LGV in Quebec and the characteristics of the affected population, including demographics and risk factors, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatments and reinfection rates.
Methods: Descriptive data were collected from the notifiable diseases records through the Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ) infocentre portal. Questionnaires were obtained through the enhanced surveillance system and transmitted anonymously to the Quebec Ministry of Health. In-depth analysis was performed on cases from 2013 to 2016.
Results: There were 338 cases of LGV over the four-year period in Quebec. All cases were male, excluding one transsexual. Mean age was 41 years. Most lived in Montréal (81%) and were men who have sex with men (MSM; 99%). The majority (83%) reported four sexual partners or more in the last year, met mostly through the Internet (77%) and in saunas (73%). Frequency of sexual intercourse with out-of-province residents decreased in 2013-2016 (27%) compared with 2005-2012 (38%). History of STIs was frequent: 83% were HIV-infected, 81% reported previous syphilis and 78% previous gonorrhea. Recreational drug use was frequent (57%), reaching 71% in 2016. Most cases were symptomatic, a proportion which decreased in 2016 (68%) compared with 2013-2015 (82%; =0.006). Clinical presentations included proctitis (86%), lymphadenopathy (13%) and ulcer/papule (12%). Reinfections, mostly within two years of first infection, occurred in 35 individuals (10%). The re-emergence of LGV in Quebec involves an urban subpopulation composed almost exclusively of MSM with STIs, who have a high number of partners and often use drugs.
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