Hepatol Commun 2018 May 30;2(5):515-528. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
Institute of Liver Studies King's College London London United Kingdom.
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) with normal circulating gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels can result from mutations in the gene (encoding familial intrahepatic cholestasis 1 [FIC1] deficiency) or the gene (bile salt export protein [BSEP] deficiency). We investigated the outcomes of partial external biliary diversion, ileal exclusion, and liver transplantation in these two conditions. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study of 42 patients with FIC1 deficiency (FIC1 patients) and 60 patients with BSEP deficiency (BSEP patients) who had undergone one or more surgical procedures (57 diversions, 6 exclusions, and 57 transplants). For surgeries performed prior to transplantation, BSEP patients were divided into two groups, BSEP-common (bearing common missense mutations D482G or E297G, with likely residual function) and BSEP-other. We evaluated clinical and biochemical outcomes in these patients. Overall, diversion improved biochemical parameters, pruritus, and growth, with substantial variation in individual response. BSEP-common or FIC1 patients survived longer after diversion without developing cirrhosis, being listed for or undergoing liver transplantation, or dying, compared to BSEP-other patients. Transplantation resolved cholestasis in all groups. However, FIC1 patients commonly developed hepatic steatosis, diarrhea, and/or pancreatic disease after transplant accompanied by biochemical abnormalities and often had continued poor growth. In BSEP patients with impaired growth, this generally improved after transplantation. Diversion can improve clinical and biochemical status in FIC1 and BSEP deficiencies, but outcomes differ depending on genetic etiology. For many patients, particularly BSEP-other, diversion is not a permanent solution and transplantation is required. Although transplantation resolves cholestasis in patients with FIC1 and BSEP deficiencies, the overall outcome remains unsatisfactory in many FIC1 patients; this is mainly due to extrahepatic manifestations. ( 2018;2:515-528).