The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poor and available treatment options are limited. This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy of Multiple Antigen Stimulating Cell Therapy (MASCT) as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of HCC after curative treatment. Patients who underwent HCC curative treatments were classified into two groups: the MASCT group, in which patients received MASCT treatment after curative treatment (n = 47), and the control group, in which patients did not receive any treatment after curative treatment (n = 99). Patients who received ≥ 5 courses of MASCT treatment before recurrence or death (n = 26) were further stratified into a subgroup (multiple-course MASCT group) for analysis. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). The secondary endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS) and safety. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no statistically significant difference in OS between the MASCT group and the control group ( = 0.132), nor in DFS ( = 0.310) (median: 36.17 vs. 24.27 months). However, when comparing the multiple-course MASCT treated group to the control group, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant difference in OS ( = 0.011), but not in DFS ( = 0.104) (median: 47.10 vs. 24.27 months). The overall incidences of treatment-related adverse events in the MASCT group and control group were 14.89% (7/47) and 19.19% (19/99), respectively. No MASCT treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. Although the MASCT group was not associated with significantly longer OS or DFS, the multiple-course MASCT group showed significantly improved overall survival after curative treatment, and the treatment procedures were well-tolerated. Multiple-course MASCT may therefore provide another choice for patients with HCC after curative treatment.