Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), a secreted member of the Semaphorin family, increases osteoblast differentiation, stimulates bone formation and enhances fracture healing. Here, we report a previously unknown role of Sema3A in the regulation of ectopic bone formation and osteolysis related to osteosarcoma. Human recombinant (exogenous) Sema3A promoted the expression of osteoblastic phenotype in a panel of human osteosarcoma cell lines and inhibited the ability of these cells to migrate and enhance osteoclastogenesis in vitro. In vivo, administration of exogenous Sema3A in mice after paratibial inoculation of KHOS cells increased bone volume in non-inoculated and tumour-bearing legs. In contrast, Sema3A overexpression reduced the ability of KHOS cells to cause ectopic bone formation in mice and to increase bone nodule formation by engaging DKK1/β-catenin signalling. Thus, Sema3A is of potential therapeutic efficacy in osteosarcoma. However, inhibition of bone formation associated with continuous exposure to Sema3A may limit its long-term usefulness as therapeutic agent.