Cancer 2018 06 6;124(12):2588-2598. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, California.
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the few cancers whose incidence continues to increase. The goal of the current study was to investigate the presentation and survival trends of patients with HCC presenting to a university hospital between 1998 and 2015.
Methods: Study data were ascertained by individual chart review with survival data also supplemented by National Death Index query up to December 31, 2015. Patients were divided into three 6-year groups by diagnosis date (1998-2003, 2004-2009, and 2010-2015).
Results: A total of 2106 consecutive patients with HCC were included. The majority of patients had either hepatitis C (56.7%) or hepatitis B (22.1%), but cases of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis HCC increased by 68% over the most recent time period. Screening/surveillance identified 61% of HCC cases, but only 31% of these patients underwent curative treatment, which did not increase significantly over time. The overall median survival was 29.8 months (2.48 years) and without improvement over time. On multivariable analysis, Asian or Hispanic ethnicity, meeting Milan criteria, and receiving any of the standard HCC treatments were found to be significantly associated with improved survival, but diagnosis time period and liver disease etiology were not.
Conclusions: Over the last 18 years, the percentage of cases of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis HCC has increased but not overall survival. It is interesting to note that only 31% of patients with HCC identified via screening/surveillance received any curative treatment. Further research is needed to better understand the barriers to curative care for patients with HCC and the causes of the lack of improvement in survival in the more recent patient cohort. Cancer 2018;124:2588-98. © 2018 American Cancer Society.