Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2018 05;44(2):203-213
Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5T 3M6, Canada; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5T 3M7, Canada; Division of Rheumatology, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada.
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Stat Med 2007 Feb;26(4):734-53
Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ont., Canada.
The propensity score--the probability of exposure to a specific treatment conditional on observed variables--is increasingly being used in observational studies. Creating strata in which subjects are matched on the propensity score allows one to balance measured variables between treated and untreated subjects. There is an ongoing controversy in the literature as to which variables to include in the propensity score model. Read More
Stat Methods Med Res 2017 Aug 30;26(4):1654-1670. Epub 2015 Apr 30.
4 Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.
There is increasing interest in estimating the causal effects of treatments using observational data. Propensity-score matching methods are frequently used to adjust for differences in observed characteristics between treated and control individuals in observational studies. Survival or time-to-event outcomes occur frequently in the medical literature, but the use of propensity score methods in survival analysis has not been thoroughly investigated. Read More
Nurs Res 2008 Nov-Dec;57(6):444-52
Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.
Background: Lack of randomization of nursing intervention in outcome effectiveness studies may lead to imbalanced covariates. Consequently, estimation of nursing intervention effect can be biased as in other observational studies. Propensity score analysis is an effective statistical method to reduce such bias and further derive causal effects in observational studies. Read More
Int J Biostat 2009 Apr 14;5(1):Article 13. Epub 2009 Apr 14.
Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Canada.
Propensity-score matching is frequently used in the medical literature to reduce or eliminate the effect of treatment selection bias when estimating the effect of treatments or exposures on outcomes using observational data. In propensity-score matching, pairs of treated and untreated subjects with similar propensity scores are formed. Recent systematic reviews of the use of propensity-score matching found that the large majority of researchers ignore the matched nature of the propensity-score matched sample when estimating the statistical significance of the treatment effect. Read More