Front Physiol 2018 21;9:258. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
Dipartimento di Medicina, Chirurgia e Odontoiatria, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Baronissi, Italy.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a key role in the regulation of the physiological and pathological signaling within the vasculature. In physiological conditions, a delicate balance between oxidants and antioxidants protects cells from the detrimental effects of ROS/RNS. Indeed, the imbalance between ROS/RNS production and antioxidant defense mechanisms leads to oxidative and nitrosative stress within the cell. These processes promote the vascular damage observed in chronic conditions, such as hypertension. The strong implication of ROS/RNS in the etiology of hypertension suggest that antioxidants could be effective in the treatment of this pathology. Indeed, in animal models of hypertension, the overexpression of antioxidants and the genetic modulation of oxidant systems have provided an encouraging proof of concept. Nevertheless, the translation of these strategies to human disease did not reach the expected success. This could be due to the complexity of this condition, whose etiology depends on multiple factors (smoking, diet, life styles, genetics, family history, comorbidities). Indeed, 95% of reported high blood pressure cases are deemed "essential hypertension," and at the molecular level, oxidative stress seems to be a common feature of hypertensive states. In this scenario, new therapies are emerging that could be useful to reduce oxidative stress in hypertension. It is now ascertained the role of Vitamin D deficiency in the development of essential hypertension and it has been shown that an appropriate high dose of Vitamin D significantly reduces blood pressure in hypertensive cohorts with vitamin D deficiency. Moreover, new drugs are emerging which have both antihypertensive action and antioxidant properties, such as celiprolol, carvedilol, nebivolol. Indeed, besides adrenergic desensitization, these kind of drugs are able to interfere with ROS/RNS generation and/or signaling, and are therefore considered promising therapeutics in the management of hypertension. In the present review we have dealt with the effectiveness of the antioxidant therapy in the management of hypertension. In particular, we discuss about Vitamin D and anti-hypertensive drugs with antioxidant properties.