A novel blood-feeding detoxification pathway in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis L3 reveals a potential checkpoint for arresting hookworm development.

PLoS Pathog 2018 03 22;14(3):e1006931. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Malaghan Institute of Medical Research, Wellington, New Zealand.

As part of on-going efforts to control hookworm infection, the "human hookworm vaccine initiative" has recognised blood feeding as a feasible therapeutic target for inducing immunity against hookworm infection. To this end, molecular approaches have been used to identify candidate targets, such as Necator americanus (Na) haemoglobinase aspartic protease-1 (APR-1), with immunogenicity profiled in canine and hamster models. We sought to accelerate the immune analysis of these identified therapeutic targets by developing an appropriate mouse model. Here we demonstrate that Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb), a phylogenetically distant strongylid nematode of rodents, begins blood feeding early in its development and that immunisation with Na-APR-1 can block its growth and completion of its life cycle. Furthermore, we identify a new haem detoxification pathway in Nb required for blood feeding that can be blocked by drugs of the quinolone family, reducing both infection burden and the associated anaemia in rodents. Collectively, our findings show that haem metabolism has potential as a checkpoint for interrupting hookworm development in early stages of the hookworm life cycle and that the Nippostrongylus brasiliensis rodent model is relevant for identifying novel therapeutic targets against human hookworm.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5864084PMC
March 2018
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