Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2018 Oct 13;66(5):341-354. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
Institute of Human Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
Muscular dystrophies represent a group of diseases which may develop in several forms, and severity of the disease is usually associated with gene mutations. In skeletal muscle regeneration and in muscular dystrophies, both innate and adaptive immune responses are involved. The regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) of bone marrow origin was confirmed by the ability to differentiate into diverse tissues and by their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties by secretion of a variety of growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Skeletal muscle comprises different types of stem/progenitor cells such as satellite cells and non-satellite stem cells including MSCs, interstitial stem cells positive for stress mediator PW1 expression and negative for PAX7 called PICs (PW1/PAX7 interstitial cells), fibro/adipogenic progenitors/mesenchymal stem cells, muscle side population cells and muscle resident pericytes, and all of them actively participate in the muscle regeneration process. In this review, we present biological properties of MSCs of bone marrow origin and a heterogeneous population of muscle-resident stem/progenitor cells, their interaction with the inflammatory environment of dystrophic muscle and potential implications for cellular therapies for muscle regeneration. Subsequently, we propose-based on current research results, conclusions, and our own experience-hypothetical mechanisms for modulation of the complete muscle regeneration process to treat muscular dystrophies.