Infect Immun 2018 05 23;86(5). Epub 2018 Apr 23.
Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic parasitic disease caused by in the Americas. During VL, several proinflammatory cytokines are produced in spleen, liver, and bone marrow. However, the role of interleukin-32 (IL-32) has not been explored in this disease. IL-32 can induce production of proinflammatory cytokines in innate immune cells and polarize the adaptive immune response. Herein, we discovered that antigens induced expression of mRNA mainly for the IL-32γ isoform but also induced low levels of the IL-32β transcript in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, infection of human IL-32γ transgenic mice (IL-32γTg mice) with promastigote forms increased IL-32γ expression in the spleen and liver. Interestingly, IL-32γTg mice harbored less parasitism in the spleen and liver than wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, IL-32γTg mice showed increased granuloma formation in the liver compared to WT mice. The protection against VL was associated with increased production of nitric oxide (NO), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), IL-17A, and tumor necrosis factor alpha by splenic cells restimulated with antigens. In parallel, there was an increase in the number of Th1 and Th17 T cells in the spleens of IL-32γTg mice infected with IL-32γ induction of IFN-γ and IL-17A expression was found to be essential for NO production by splenic cells of infected animals. These data indicate that IL-32γ potentiates the Th1/Th17 immune response during experimental VL, thus contributing to the control of infection.