The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe.

Authors:
Francesca Candilio, PhD
Francesca Candilio, PhD
Italia Ministero dei beni e delle attività culturali e del turismo
Funzionario Antropologo - Physical Anthropologist
Physical Anthropology
Cagliari, Sardinia | Italy
Iñigo Olalde Selina Brace Morten E Allentoft Ian Armit Kristian Kristiansen Thomas Booth Nadin Rohland Swapan Mallick Anna Szécsényi-Nagy Alissa Mittnik Eveline Altena Mark Lipson Iosif Lazaridis Thomas K Harper Nick Patterson Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht Yoan Diekmann Zuzana Faltyskova Daniel Fernandes Matthew Ferry Eadaoin Harney Peter de Knijff Megan Michel Jonas Oppenheimer Kristin Stewardson Alistair Barclay Kurt Werner Alt Corina Liesau Patricia Ríos Concepción Blasco Jorge Vega Miguel Roberto Menduiña García Azucena Avilés Fernández Eszter Bánffy Maria Bernabò-Brea David Billoin Clive Bonsall Laura Bonsall Tim Allen Lindsey Büster Sophie Carver Laura Castells Navarro Oliver E Craig Gordon T Cook Barry Cunliffe Anthony Denaire Kirsten Egging Dinwiddy Natasha Dodwell Michal Ernée Christopher Evans Milan Kuchařík Joan Francès Farré Chris Fowler Michiel Gazenbeek Rafael Garrido Pena María Haber-Uriarte Elżbieta Haduch Gill Hey Nick Jowett Timothy Knowles Ken Massy Saskia Pfrengle Philippe Lefranc Olivier Lemercier Arnaud Lefebvre César Heras Martínez Virginia Galera Olmo Ana Bastida Ramírez Joaquín Lomba Maurandi Tona Majó Jacqueline I McKinley Kathleen McSweeney Balázs Gusztáv Mende Alessandra Modi Gabriella Kulcsár Viktória Kiss András Czene Róbert Patay Anna Endrődi Kitti Köhler Tamás Hajdu Tamás Szeniczey János Dani Zsolt Bernert Maya Hoole Olivia Cheronet Denise Keating Petr Velemínský Miroslav Dobeš Fraser Brown Raúl Flores Fernández Ana-Mercedes Herrero-Corral Sebastiano Tusa Emiliano Carnieri Luigi Lentini Antonella Valenti Alessandro Zanini Clive Waddington Germán Delibes Elisa Guerra-Doce Benjamin Neil Marcus Brittain Mike Luke Richard Mortimer Jocelyne Desideri Marie Besse Günter Brücken Mirosław Furmanek Agata Hałuszko Maksym Mackiewicz Artur Rapiński Stephany Leach Ignacio Soriano Katina T Lillios João Luís Cardoso Michael Parker Pearson Piotr Włodarczak T Douglas Price Pilar Prieto Pierre-Jérôme Rey Roberto Risch Manuel A Rojo Guerra Aurore Schmitt Joël Serralongue Ana Maria Silva Václav Smrčka Luc Vergnaud João Zilhão David Caramelli Thomas Higham Mark G Thomas Douglas J Kennett Harry Fokkens Volker Heyd Alison Sheridan Karl-Göran Sjögren Philipp W Stockhammer Johannes Krause Ron Pinhasi Wolfgang Haak Ian Barnes Carles Lalueza-Fox David Reich

Nature 2018 03 21;555(7695):190-196. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

From around 2750 to 2500 bc, Bell Beaker pottery became widespread across western and central Europe, before it disappeared between 2200 and 1800 bc. The forces that propelled its expansion are a matter of long-standing debate, and there is support for both cultural diffusion and migration having a role in this process. Here we present genome-wide data from 400 Neolithic, Copper Age and Bronze Age Europeans, including 226 individuals associated with Beaker-complex artefacts. We detected limited genetic affinity between Beaker-complex-associated individuals from Iberia and central Europe, and thus exclude migration as an important mechanism of spread between these two regions. However, migration had a key role in the further dissemination of the Beaker complex. We document this phenomenon most clearly in Britain, where the spread of the Beaker complex introduced high levels of steppe-related ancestry and was associated with the replacement of approximately 90% of Britain's gene pool within a few hundred years, continuing the east-to-west expansion that had brought steppe-related ancestry into central and northern Europe over the previous centuries.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature25738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5973796PMC
March 2018
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