Do Current Fortification and Supplementation Programs Assure Adequate Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Belgian Infants, Toddlers, Pregnant Women, and Lactating Women?

Nutrients 2018 Feb 16;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Department of Public Health and Surveillance, Scientific Institute of Public Health (WIV-ISP), Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.

Adequate intakes of fat-soluble vitamins are essential to support the growth and development of the foetus, the neonate, and the young child. By means of an online self-administered frequency questionnaire, this study aimed to evaluate the intake of vitamins A, D, E, and K in Belgian infants ( = 455), toddlers ( = 265), pregnant women ( = 161), and lactating women ( = 165). The contribution of foods, fortified foods, and supplements on the total intake was quantified. 5% of toddlers, 16% of pregnant women, and 35% of lactating women had an inadequate vitamin A intake. Conversely, excessive vitamin A intakes were associated with consumption of liver (products). Furthermore, 22% of infants were at risk for inadequate vitamin D intake due to the lack of prophylaxis, while consumption of highly dosed supplements posed a risk for excessive intakes in 6%-26% of infants. Vitamin D intake in pregnant women and lactating women was inadequate (median of 51%, respectively, 60% of the adequate intake). In all groups, the risk for inadequate intake of vitamin E and K was low. Contribution of fortified foods to vitamin A, D, E, and K intake was minor, except in toddlers. National fortification strategies should be investigated as an alternative or additional strategy to prevent vitamin D and A deficiency. There is a need to revise and set uniform supplement recommendations. Finally, non-users of vitamin D prophylaxis need to be identified for targeted treatment.

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Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10020223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5852799PMC
February 2018
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References

(Supplied by CrossRef)
Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for vitamin D1
EFSA J. 2016
Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for vitamin A
EFSA J. 2015
Dietary reference values for vitamin K
EFSA J. 2017
Prevalence and risk factors for low vitamin D status among breastfeeding mother-infants dyads in an environment with abundant sunshine
Salameh et al.
J. Bone Miner. Res. 2016

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