Clin Exp Rheumatol 2018 Mar-Apr;36 Suppl 111(2):169-170. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
St. Josef Stift Sendenhorst, Germany.
Stroke 2011 Nov 22;42(11):3287-90. Epub 2011 Sep 22.
Neurology Department, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Hermanos Falcó 37, 02006 Albacete, Spain.
Background And Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe typical ultrasonographic findings of vertebral arteries in patients affected by giant cell arteritis.
Methods: Color duplex sonography was used to asses the cervical arteries within 24 hours from stroke onset in 1237 patients. Vertebral arteritis was considered if concentric, homogeneous, and smooth hypoechogenic mural thickening (the so-called halo sign) was present in at least 1 cervical segment of the vertebral artery. Read More
Clin Exp Rheumatol 2002 May-Jun;20(3):309-18
Medical Center for Rheumatology Berlin-Buch, Berlin, Germany.
Objective: To investigate the involvement of arteries other than the temporal arteries in active giant cell arteritis using color Doppler sonography.
Methods: The occipital, facial, vertebral, carotid, subclavian, axillary, brachial, ulnar radial, femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial, and dorsal pedal arteries, and the abdominal aorta of 33 consecutive patients with acute giant cell arteritis and 33 age- and sex-matched controls were investigated.
Results: In 10 patients (30%), but in none of the controls, a characteristic inflammatory mural thickening (halo) could be demonstrated in these arteries. Read More
Clin Med Insights Arthritis Musculoskelet Disord 2016 29;9:103-7. Epub 2016 May 29.
Box Hill Hospital, Box Hill, VIC, Australia.
In giant cell arteritis (GCA), involvement of the vertebral arteries is rare with reported rates of 3%-4% for ischemic events secondary to vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion for those patients with GCA. This case study describes a patient who initially presented with acute onset of vertigo but was also found to have transient, side-alternating upper limb neurological findings. While initial imaging showed no vascular abnormalities, it was not until GCA was eventually confirmed with a temporal artery biopsy that the initial scans were shown to have bilateral narrowing of the vertebral arteries. Read More
J Clin Pathol 1993 Dec;46(12):1129-31
Department of Pathology, Cork Regional Hospital, Wilton, Ireland.
Death due to giant cell arteritis (GCA) is rare, and is usually caused by coronary or vertebral arteritis in the acute phase of the disease. A case of fatal GCA is reported in a woman with a normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate, who had been treated for temporal arteritis for eight months. Post mortem examination showed a dissection and thrombosis of the intracranial portion of the left vertebral artery caused by giant cell arteritis. Read More