Radiation protection research receives intense focus due to its significant impact on human health. The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of pretreatment with tomato seed oil (TSO) against gamma radiation-induced damage in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (1) untreated control; (2) TSO-supplemented; (3) gamma-irradiated; (4) TSO-pretreated and gamma-irradiated. Acute exposure of animals to a single gamma radiation dose (6 Gy) induced oxidative stress in major body organs, altered serum lipid homeostasis, significantly increased serum testosterone and sorbitol dehydrogenase levels, and elicited a systemic inflammation as manifested by the induction of serum vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Oral pretreatment with TSO (1 ml/kg; 3 times/week for 8 weeks) before exposure to gamma radiation protected rats against ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress, restored lipid homeostasis, and suppressed systemic inflammation. Histological findings of target tissues verified biochemical data. The radioprotective ability of TSO was attributed to its content of phytosterols, policosanol, and antioxidants, including lycopene, β-carotene, lutein, and tocopherols. TSO is considered a promising radioprotective agent that can be effectively used to protect the body from the damaging effects of harmful radiation.