Eur J Hum Genet 2018 03 4;26(3):440-444. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
Department of Paediatric Oncology, Haematology and Clinical Immunology, University Children´s Hospital, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf, Germany.
Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is an autosomal recessively inherited childhood cancer susceptibility syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The spectrum of CMMRD-associated tumours is very broad and many CMMRD patients additionally display signposting non-neoplastic features, most frequently café-au-lait macules and other pigmentation alterations. We report on a 13-month-old girl suspected of having CMMRD due to a desmoplastic medulloblastoma and a striking skin pigmentation that included multiple café-au-lait macules, hypopigmented areas and Mongolian spots. Whole-exome sequencing revealed homozygosity for MSH2 variant p.(Leu92Val) and MSH6 variant p.(Val809del), both variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumour tissue showed expression of all four MMR proteins and gMSI testing was negative. However, functional assays demonstrated that the cells of the patient displayed methylation tolerance and ex vivo microsatellite instability, which unequivocally confirmed the diagnosis of CMMRD. Taken together, the results render the MSH2 variant unlikely to be responsible for the phenotype, while they are compatible with MSH6-associated CMMRD. This case illustrates the diagnostic strategy of confirming CMMRD syndrome in patients with VUS.