Background: Air pollution is an important environmental issue due to its proven serious impacts on human health. The aim of this study was to estimate the attribution of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameters of ≤ 2.5 and 10 (PM and PM) in the prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and premature deaths in Isfahan in 2013-2014. Materials And Methods: This descriptive, ecological study was conducted to assess health impacts of PM and PM on the population using Air Q software, suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO).Results: The results showed that the annual mean, winter mean, summer mean, and the 98 percentile of PM concentration in Isfahan were 108, 100, 116, and 264 μg/m, respectively. The number of deaths per year related to PM was 670 and that for PM was 713 cases. The number of annual deaths due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases attributed to PM was 316 and 68 cases, respectively.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that about 44.3% of total annual death due to cardiovascular diseases and 9.55% of that due to respiratory diseases were attributed to PM exposure. In the other word, residents were exposed to PM and PM concentrations higher than the WHO guidelines which caused a notable increase in the rate of mortality.