Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 05 29;24(5):1088-1093. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
Hematopoetic Stem Cell Transplant Unit, Hematology-Oncology, G. Gaslini Institute, Genoa, Italy.
It is recognized that chimerism following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a dynamic process. The aims of this study were to describe the evolution of chimerism in children with nonmalignant diseases who underwent allogeneic HSCT, and to analyze the risk factors influencing chimerism status. A total of 101 HSCTs were performed in 85 patients with nonmalignant diseases. The donor was unrelated in 62.4% of HSCTs. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen was administered in 48.5% of patients. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) occurred in 51.7% and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) in 39.7% of patients. Analysis of chimerism was performed through amplification of 9 specific short tandem repeats by polymerase chain reaction at engraftment and 1, 6, and 12 months after HSCT. Upon first evaluation, complete chimerism (CC) was detected in 34.7% and mixed chimerism (MC) in 55.4%, whereas graft failure occurred in 9.9% of patients. Severe aGVHD was associated with CC (P = .031). The last chimerism evaluation showed CC in 72.1%, stable MC in 12.8%, and progressive MC in 3.5%. CC was associated with a higher incidence of aGVHD (P = .016) and cGVHD (P = .022), whereas the RIC regimen was associated with graft failure (P = .026). One- and 3-year overall survival (OS) was 87.4% and 80.5%, respectively, with a lower OS at 3 years in patients with CC compared with those with MC (P = .008). aGVHD and cGVHD represent factors favoring CC, thus close, careful follow-up of chimerism is recommended in patients affected by nonmalignant disease.