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Mitoimmunity-when mitochondria dictates macrophage function.
Cell Biol Int 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
Laboratory of Immunometabolism, Department of Genetics, Evolution, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.
In the past decade, several reports have appointed the importance of mitochondria in the immune response. Our understanding of mitochondria evolved from a simple supplier of energy into a platform necessary for immunorregulation. Proinflammatory responses are associated with enhanced glycolytic activity and breakdown of the TCA cycle. Mitochondrial reactive species of oxygen (mROS) are key regulators of classically activated macrophages, with substantial impact in the anti-microbicidal activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion of macrophages. The inflammasome activation in macrophages is dependent on mROS production and mitochondrial regulation and mitochondrial dynamics and functionality direct impact inflammatory responses. Alternative activated macrophage metabolism relies on fatty acid oxidation, and the mechanism responsible for this phenotype is not fully elucidated. Thus, cellular metabolism and mitochondria function is a key immunoregulatory feature of macrophage biology. In this review, we will provide insights into recently reported evidences of mitochondria-related metabolic nodes, which are important for macrophage physiology.
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