Section Head, Department of Vascular Medicine, Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism, is a common cardiovascular disease associated with significant morbidity ranging from painful leg swelling, chest pain, shortness of breath, and even death. Long-term complications include recurrent VTE, postpulmonary embolism syndrome, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). Management of VTE requires immediate anticoagulation therapy based on a risk assessment for bleeding. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have become an important option for patients as reflected in the most recent American College of Chest Physician treatment guidelines.