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    Diagnostic value of the physical examination in patients with dyspnea.

    Cleve Clin J Med 2017 Dec;84(12):943-950
    Department of Internal Medicine, St. Joseph Mercy Ann Arbor Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    We reviewed the evidence for the diagnostic accuracy of the physical examination in diagnosing pneumonia, pleural effusion, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and congestive heart failure in patients with dyspnea and found that the physical examination has reliable diagnostic accuracy for these common conditions.
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