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    [Neuroleptic malignant syndrome].

    Nervenarzt 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Klinische Pharmakologie am Lehrstuhl für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Universität Regensburg, Regensburg, Deutschland.
    Background: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but severe undesired complication of psychopharmacological treatment. The mortality has shown a significant decrease since its first description. Knowledge of NMS is important for every clinician because of the need for rapid diagnosis and treatment.

    Objective: This article presents a review and critical appraisal of the current study situation for NMS. Recommendations for diagnostics, differential diagnostics and treatment are presented particularly from a clinical perspective.

    Material And Methods: A literature review with the keywords "neuroleptic malignant syndrome", "Malignes neuroleptisches Syndrom" and various psychotropic drugs was performed in PubMed. The database of the Working Group for Pharmaceutical Treatment of Psychiatric Diseases (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Arzneimitteltherapie bei psychiatrischen Erkrankungen, AGATE) was analyzed with respect to registered cases of the undesired side effect NMS.

    Results: In contrast to the first description, which also led to the name, there are now case reports of clinical conditions similar to NMS, which were obviously triggered by several groups of psychotropic drugs not just antipsychotic agents (German: Neuroleptika). Treatment recommendations exist whereby the effectiveness cannot always be scientifically substantiated; however, it is still undisputed that a rapid initiation of treatment is of great importance.

    Discussion: The psychiatrist must be familiar with the symptoms of NMS, its differential diagnosis and the therapeutic options for a rapid and effective treatment. Further studies are urgently needed for scientific substantiation of the pathophysiology of NMS and to develop evidence-based guidelines for treatment.
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