Complementary and alternative treatments, including dietary supplements, are very popular and increasingly used in developed countries. Some features such as accessibility, ease of use, the possibility of self-administration and the belief they are safe without side effects, have led to an increase in their consumption. However, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness and safety of these treatments because of methodological issues. The level of scientific evidence is particularly low and weak in the field of child and adolescent Psychiatry. The purpose of this article is to give an updated overview of dietary treatments in this area. We make a brief introduction about general questions, including legal aspects, and propose general practical recommendations for a proper management by the families that choose these treatments. We focus on reviewing the current state of research into dietary treatments in some childhood and juvenile psychiatric disorders, highlighting current evidence of specific treatments. The final purpose of this article is to describe the level of current evidence on dietary treatments and to provide professionals involved in the care of children and adolescents with a useful tool to help, guide and educate families about their use in order to achieve the greatest benefit to patients.
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