Blood Purif 2017 22;44(4):314-326. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplant, San Bortolo Hospital, Agrigento, Italy.
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Cardiorenal Med 2017 Oct 24;7(4):276-283. Epub 2017 Jun 24.
IRRIV-International Renal Research Institute Vicenza, Vicenza, Italy.
Lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin, the major cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. It is able to activate the host defense system through the interaction with Toll-like receptor 4, thus triggering pro-inflammatory mechanisms. When the production of inflammatory mediators becomes uncontrolled and excessive, septic shock develops with multiple organ dysfunction, such as myocardial and renal impairment, which are hallmarks of cardiorenal syndrome type 5. Read More
Kidney Blood Press Res 2016 23;41(6):1008-1015. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, St Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.
Background/aims: Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 5 (CRS Type 5) is characterized by concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction in the setting of different systemic disorders, such as sepsis. In this study, we investigated the possible relationship between endotoxin levels, renal cell death and inflammation in septic patients with CRS Type 5.
Methods: We enrolled 11 patients with CRS Type 5. Read More
Contrib Nephrol 2013 13;182:82-98. Epub 2013 May 13.
St. John Providence Health System, Warren, Mich., Providence Hospitals and Medical Centers, Southfield and Novi, MI 48374 , USA.
Cardiorenal syndromes (CRS) have been recently classified into five distinct entities, each with different major pathophysiologic mechanisms. CRS type 1 most commonly occurs in the setting of acutely decompensated heart failure where approximately 25% of patients develop a rise in serum creatinine and a reduction of urine output after the first several doses of intravenous diuretics. Altered cardiac and renal hemodynamics are believed to be the most important determinants of CRS type 1. Read More
Heart Fail Rev 2016 Mar;21(2):177-89
Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplant, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.
Cardiomyocyte apoptosis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. It may be induced by different stimuli, and it seems to be perpetuated by oxidative stress and inflammation. In this scenario, heart failure may trigger various cell-mediated and humoral pathways affecting distant organs, such as kidneys, contributing to higher therapeutic costs, morbidity and mortality. Read More