The development of drug resistance continues to be a dominant hindrance toward curative cancer treatment. Overexpression of a wide-spectrum of ATP-dependent efflux pumps, and in particular of ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein or MDR1) is a well-known resistance mechanism for a plethora of cancer chemotherapeutics including for example taxenes, anthracyclines, Vinca alkaloids, and epipodopyllotoxins, demonstrated by a large array of published papers, both in tumor cell lines and in a variety of tumors, including various solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Upon repeated or even single dose treatment of cultured tumor cells or tumors in vivo with anti-tumor agents such as paclitaxel and doxorubicin, increased ABCB1 copy number has been demonstrated, resulting from chromosomal amplification events at 7q11. 2-21 locus, leading to marked P-glycoprotein overexpression, and multidrug resistance (MDR). Clearly however, additional mechanisms such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epigenetic modifications have shown a role in the overexpression of ABCB1 and of other MDR efflux pumps. However, notwithstanding the design of 4 generations of ABCB1 inhibitors and the wealth of information on the biochemistry and substrate specificity of ABC transporters, translation of this vast knowledge from the bench to the bedside has proven to be unexpectedly difficult. Many studies show that upon repeated treatment schedules of cell cultures or tumors with taxenes and anthracyclines as well as other chemotherapeutic drugs, amplification, and/or overexpression of a series of genes genomically surrounding the ABCB1 locus, is observed. Consequently, altered levels of other proteins may contribute to the establishment of the MDR phenotype, and lead to poor clinical outcome. Thus, the genes contained in this ABCB1 amplicon including ABCB4, SRI, DBF4, TMEM243, and RUNDC3B are overexpressed in many cancers, and especially in MDR tumors, while TP53TG1 and DMTF1 are bona fide tumor suppressors. This review describes the role of these genes in cancer and especially in the acquisition of MDR, elucidates possible connections in transcriptional regulation (co-amplification/repression) of genes belonging to the same ABCB1 amplicon region, and delineates their novel emerging contributions to tumor biology and possible strategies to overcome cancer MDR.