Department of Intensive Care, King Abdulaziz Medical City, College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences and King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh 11426, Saudi Arabia.
Rationale: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) may complicate the course of hematologic malignancies (HMs). Our objective was to study the characteristics, outcomes and predictors of mortality of patients with HMs who required intubation for ARF.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated all patients with HMs who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of King Abdul-Aziz Medical City-Riyadh between 2008 and 2013 and required invasive mechanical ventilation. We noted their baseline characteristics, treatments and different outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate predictors of hospital mortality.
Results: During the 6-year period, 190 patients with HMs were admitted to the ICU and 122 (64.2%) required intubation for ARF. These patients had mean age of 57.2 ± 19.3 years and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 28.0 ± 7.8 and were predominantly males (63.4%). Lymphoma (44.3%) and acute leukemia (38.5%) were the most common hematologic malignancy. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) was tried in 22 patients (18.0%) but failed. The code status was changed to "Do-Not-Resuscitate" for 39 patients (32.0%) during ICU stay. Hospital mortality was 70.5% and most deaths (81.4%) occurred in the ICU. The mortality of patients with "Do-Not-Resuscitate" status was 97.4%. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, male gender (odds ratio (OR), 6.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.24-20.30), septic shock (OR, 6.61; 95% CI, 1.93-22.66) were independent mortality predictors. Remission status, non-NIV failure and chemotherapy during ICU stay were not associated with mortality.
Conclusions: Patients with HMs requiring intubation had high mortality (70.5%). Male gender and presence of septic shock were independent predictors of mortality.