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Customization of biliopancreatic limb length to modulate and sustain antidiabetic effect of gastric bypass surgery.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 02 2;314(2):G287-G299. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital , Boston, Massachusetts.
Although Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) remains the most effective treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), many patients fail to achieve remission, or relapse. Increasing intestinal limb lengths of RYGB may improve outcomes, but the mechanistic basis for this remains unclear. We hypothesize biliopancreatic (BP) limb length modulates the antidiabetic effect of RYGB. Rats underwent RYGB with a 20-cm (RYGB-20cm) or 40-cm (RYGB-40cm) BP limb and were compared with control animals. After 2 and 4 wk, portal and systemic blood was sampled during intestinal glucose infusion. Portosystemic gradient was used to calculate intestinal glucose utilization (G), absorption (G), and hormone secretion. Intestinal morphology and gene expression were assessed. At 2 wk, G progressively decreased with increasing BP limb length; this pattern persisted at 4 wk. G increased ≈70% in both RYGB-20cm and -40cm groups at 2 wk. At 4 wk, G progressively increased with limb length. Furthermore, Roux limb weight, and expression of hexokinase and preproglucagon, exhibited a similar progressive increase. At 4 wk, glucagon-like peptide-1 and -2 levels were higher after RYGB-40cm, with associated increased secretion. We conclude that BP limb length modulates multiple antidiabetic mechanisms, analogous to the dose-response relationship of a drug. Early postoperatively, a longer BP limb reduces G. Later, G, Roux limb hypertrophy, hormone secretion, and hormone levels are increased with longer BP limb. Sustained high incretin levels may prevent weight regain and T2D relapse. These data provide the basis for customizing BP limb length according to patient characteristics and desired metabolic effect. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Biliopancreatic limb length in gastric bypass modulates multiple antidiabetic mechanisms, analogous to the dose-response relationship of a drug. With a longer biliopancreatic limb, Roux limb hypertrophy, increased glucose utilization, reduced glucose absorption, and sustained high incretin levels may prevent weight regain and diabetes relapse.
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