The increasing rates of acute interstitial nephritis in Australia: a single centre case series.

BMC Nephrol 2017 Oct 31;18(1):329. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Department of Renal Medicine, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, QLD, 4029, Australia.

Background: The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare's first report into acute kidney injury demonstrated a significant increase in the incidence of acute-tubulo interstitial nephritis, the ICD-10 code representing both acute interstitial nephritis and pyelonephritis, in women aged less than 55 years. In contrast, recent case series have reported rising rates of drug induced acute interstitial nephritis predominantly among elderly patients. Due to several limitations with the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare report, this new trend requires further investigation to determine if rates of acute interstitial nephritis are truly increasing among younger Australian women.

Methods: Patients who underwent a renal biopsy at a single center from 2000 to 2015 were reviewed and those with biopsy confirmed acute interstitial nephritis were selected. Cause of acute interstitial nephritis, patient demographics, co-morbidities and renal indices for these patients when available were recorded and compared.

Results: Eight hundred ninety-eight patients who underwent renal biopsy from 2000 to 2015 were reviewed and 40 patients were identified with biopsy confirmed acute interstitial nephritis. The rate of acute interstitial nephritis increased significantly over the study period (4 patients/2.2% of biopsies performed in 2000-03 vs. 19 patients/6.7% of all biopsies performed in 2012-15; p = 0.002). There was a marked increase in the number of women with AIN in the last four years of the study (2 patients and 2.1% of biopsies performed in women in 2000-2003 compared with 13 patients and 9.0% of biopsies performed in women in 2012-2015). Immune mediated causes of acute interstitial nephritis and NSAID associated AIN were more common in women (9 females vs. 3 males), occurred more frequently in the last eight years of the study and predominantly in patients under 55 years of age.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a significant increase in the number of patients with biopsy confirmed AIN. Also, we provide preliminary evidence in support of an increase in rates of younger women with immune mediated acute interstitial nephritis. These results support the findings of the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and suggest that younger women may be at higher risk of immune mediated and NSAID associated acute interstitial nephritis.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-017-0747-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5664794PMC
October 2017
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