Flavonoid-Rich Apple Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Authors:
Nicola P Bondonno
Nicola P Bondonno
Royal Perth Hospital
Perth | Australia
Catherine P Bondonno
Catherine P Bondonno
School of Medicine and Pharmacology
Australia
Lauren C Blekkenhorst
Lauren C Blekkenhorst
Edith Cowan University
Australia
Michael J Considine
Michael J Considine
University of Western Australia
Australia
Ghassan Maghzal
Ghassan Maghzal
School of Medical Sciences (Pathology) and Bosch Institute
Roland Stocker
Roland Stocker
University of New South Wales
Australia
Richard J Woodman
Richard J Woodman
Flinders University
Australia
Natalie C Ward
Natalie C Ward
University of Western Australia
Australia

Mol Nutr Food Res 2018 02 19;62(3). Epub 2017 Dec 19.

School of Medicine, University of Western Australia, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Scope: The cardioprotective effects of apples are primarily attributed to flavonoids, found predominantly in the skin. This study aimed to determine if acute and/or chronic (4 weeks) ingestion of flavonoid-rich apples improves endothelial function, blood pressure (BP), and arterial stiffness in individuals at risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Methods And Results: In this randomized, controlled cross-over trial, acute and 4 week intake of apple with skin (high flavonoid apple, HFA) is compared to intake of apple flesh only (low flavonoid apple, LFA) in 30 participants. The primary outcome is endothelial function assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, while main secondary outcomes are 24 h ambulatory BP and arterial stiffness. Other outcomes include fasting serum glucose and lipoprotein profile, plasma heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox-1), F -isoprostanes, flavonoid metabolites, and plasma and salivary nitrate (NO ) and nitrite (NO ) concentrations. Compared to LFA control, the HFA results in a significant increase in FMD acutely (0.8%, p < 0.001) and after 4 weeks chronic intake (0.5%, p < 0.001), and in plasma flavonoid metabolites (p < 0.0001). Other outcomes are not altered significantly.

Conclusion: A lower risk of CVD with higher apple consumption could be mediated by the beneficial effect of apple skin on endothelial function, both acutely and chronically.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201700674DOI Listing

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February 2018
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