Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 02 26;314(2):G275-G286. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Centre of Functional Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre , Copenhagen , Denmark.
Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) alleviates portal hypertension and possibly increases central blood volume (CBV). Moreover, renal function often improves; however, its effects on cardiac function are unclear. The aims of our study were to examine the effects of TIPS on hemodynamics and renal and cardiac function in patients with cirrhosis. In 25 cirrhotic patients, we analyzed systemic, cardiac, and splanchnic hemodynamics by catheterization of the liver veins and right heart chambers before and 1 wk after TIPS. Additionally, we measured renal and cardiac markers and performed advanced echocardiography before, 1 wk after, and 4 mo after TIPS. CBV increased significantly after TIPS (+4.6%, P < 0.05). Cardiac output (CO) increased (+15.3%, P < 0.005) due to an increase in stroke volume (SV) (+11.1%, P < 0.005), whereas heart rate (HR) was initially unchanged. Cardiopulmonary pressures increased after TIPS, whereas copeptin, a marker of vasopressin, decreased (-18%, P < 0.005) and proatrial natriuretic peptide increased (+52%, P < 0.0005) 1 wk after TIPS and returned to baseline 4 mo after TIPS. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, renin, aldosterone, and serum creatinine decreased after TIPS (-36%, P < 0.005; -65%, P < 0.05; -90%, P < 0.005; and -13%, P < 0.005, respectively). Echocardiography revealed subtle changes in cardiac function after TIPS, although these were within the normal range. TIPS increases CBV by increasing CO and SV, whereas HR is initially unaltered. These results indicate an inability to increase the heart rate in response to a hemodynamic challenge that only partially increases CBV after TIPS. These changes, however, are sufficient for improving renal function. NEW & NOTEWORTHY For the first time, we have combined advanced techniques to study the integrated effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in cirrhosis. We showed that TIPS increases central blood volume (CBV) through improved cardiac inotropy. Advanced echocardiography demonstrated that myocardial function was unaffected by the dramatic increase in preload after TIPS. Finally, renal function improved due to the increase in CBV. Recognition of these physiological changes significantly contributes to our clinical understanding of TIPS.