Asian J Psychiatr 2017 Oct 4;29:106-109. Epub 2017 May 4.
Professor Psychiatry, Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Laurentian and Lakehead University, Ontario, Canada; Emeritus Professor Psychiatry, Schulich School of Medicine, Western University, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
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J Nerv Ment Dis 1994 Mar;182(3):168-73
Department of Psychiatry, Victoria Hospital, London, Ontario, Canada.
The neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but potentially fatal disorder characterized by mental-status changes, muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, and autonomic dysfunction. Systematic examination of early signs and the progression of symptoms in NMS may be worthwhile to facilitate prompt recognition and interventions to abort the syndrome in its incipient stage. The authors present the results of a preliminary review of the temporal sequence of the four predominant signs of NMS as described in 340 clinical reports of NMS in the literature. Read More
Drug Saf 1998 Jul;19(1):73-82
London Health Science Centre, Ontario, Canada.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but potentially lethal form of drug-induced hyperthermia characterised by mental status changes, muscle rigidity, hyperthermia and autonomic dysfunction. Increased awareness and early recognition will lead to prompt management. The diagnosis of NMS presents a challenge because several medical conditions generate similar symptoms. Read More
Pharmacotherapy 2008 Apr;28(4):530-5
Division of Pharmacy Practice and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a serious and potentially fatal adverse effect of antipsychotic drugs. The diagnosis of NMS commonly requires core symptoms of hyperthermia and muscle rigidity. Although diagnostic criteria for NMS have been established and are widely accepted and used, it should be recognized that atypical presentations pose a diagnostic dilemma, as hyperthermia and/or muscle rigidity may be absent or develop slowly over several days, leading to impairment or a significant delay in diagnosis and treatment. Read More
Encephale 2016 Jun 26;42(3):277-80. Epub 2016 Feb 26.
Pôle Santé Publique, Pharmacovigilance, CHU Grenoble-Alpes, 38000 Grenoble, France.
Background: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is an uncommon but potentially fatal adverse effect of neuroleptic drugs. It is commonly characterized by muscular rigidity, fever, altered mental status, and autonomic dysfunction. Emerging of NMS is possible with all neuroleptics, classic and atypical. Read More